The Issues related to the Process of dealing with Conflicts
The paper is dealing with the issues related to the process of dealing with conflicts and the means to manage the same. In this field the paper has picked up the political issues of South Africa regarding the establishment of a new order against apartheid and discriminations. The process of establishing South Africa away from social and political conflicts for the attainment of a ‘New Political Order’; underwent severe uproars (Ottaway, 1993). Management of these issues has been made a part of this paper to find out the relationship between the proceedings of change management on empirical cases. The approach has been structured to connect the theoretical aspects of dealing with conflicts in reference to the practical persuasion of the conflict in South Africa. It is through this case study that the conflict management added by the modes of conflict resolution have been analyzed and understood in this paper. The motive of this paper is to identify the conflicts and then to allow proper means to resolve them on social and political grounds.
Theory of Conflict Management
There are many theories related to conflict management. Under some specific speculations it has been discovered that conflict management has been recognized under the influence of situations of actual conflicts. It is a process that adds negotiations to an existent or emerging conflict. The proceedings are always initiated through properly structured and planned expression of very determined and exclusive patterns. The applications also deal with the basic reasons behind a particular conflict. The reasons for conflict or the issues related to it are not just simple inaptness. They are bigger in size and are often connected to some kind of long term negations or discriminated issues. Conflict management leads to conflict resolution. This is a post-condition phase that refers to the activities of resolving various levels of disputes, in order to gain approval of the stronger party or both the participatory parties.
A theoretical approach brings out an amalgamation of conflict management and conflict resolution that leads to most effective kind of solutions and brings an end to any kind of conflict. If a particular issue gets handled by just one of them then it is really hard to predict the time when the conflict will be taken over by peace (Folger, et al 2001). Understanding the reasons for a conflict is conflict management and adding strategies through conflict management to resolve a conflict is conflict solution. This is the reason that is one of them gets removed from the duo then the issue may lead itself to nowhere.
The theoretical application of conflict management for the identification of diversified structural goals to resolve long-term conflicts is the core concern while dealing with a conflict. In this case study the approach has been forwarded look over the application of theoretical conflict management perspectives on practical ground. The basic approach has been initiated through the recognition of many specific situations for resolving conflicts (Mitchell, 1989). These can be marked as follows;
- the establishment of a conflict can be attained through the integration of politically divided groups. this can be made possible within the context related to the unitary form of political system;
- specific establishment as well as maintenance of absolute pluralistic institutions. This is a theoretical application that can be made possible on practical ground by considering the conflict within the context of absolute single state characterization. In this structure there is the need for both shared public institutions added by the separate civil societies (Pruitt and Kim, 2004);
- there is the need for political separation made either to create two of more states, among former single unit. This can be further demarcated through the creation of strong regional autonomy, especially within the context of relatively weak central state.
The social issues that get handled by conflict management are basically related to political peripheries. The society of South Africa was amidst political conflicts and was much related to the political and social discrimination within the society. The issues of post-apartheid South Africa are all dealt under these theoretical perspectives. As for instance, in order to avoid all kinds of violent issues, there was a peaceful resolution created between all parties. Keeping this in mark in December 1991, there was the settlement of CODESA that is ‘Convention for a Democratic South Africa’ was formed. The basic purpose of this formation was to look into a multiracial transitional government added by the provision of new constitution in terms of extending political rights to all the political participators and groups. It is through CODESA that a Declaration of Intent along with the scope to get committed to itself for an "undivided South Africa" was initiated. Further, there was the addition to the aftermath of Bisho massacre. It is here that Mandela and NP leader, De Klerk agreed to have proper political meeting to find out strong and full proof ways to end up the violent uproars within the country. As a result there was the appropriate resumption of negotiations.
In order to manage with the socio-political conflicts of South Africa the application of conflict management seems to be very appropriate. Since there were conflicts related to apartheid and were occasionally dismantled under a series of political negotiations, there were many issues that were counted under conflict management. These were the series initiated from 1990 to the year 1993. Eventually the approaches got culminated in the elections that took place in 1994. This was the first election organized in South Africa under the provision of with universal suffrage. However it is noteworthy to mark that in spite of the attempts of these negotiations, there were continuous fears related to the matter of change of power in South Africa. The fears created more possibilities for violent issues.
The Sources of the Conflict
The basic sources of the conflict got its hold in a period from 1990 to 1996, and were very much under legal apparatus for dealing with the issues of apartheid; in order to abolish it from the root. In 1990 there were negotiations that were earnestly begun. The initiations were led by two meetings between the then ruling government, NP and ANC. The basic purpose of these meetings is to bring on some static negotiations. The ideology behind these negotiations was structured to get a way for a peaceful transition of political power within the state. These meetings were considerably much successful in bringing down the points for the preconditioning future negotiations.
The parties that were under conflict were the NP and the ANC. These parties were trying to establish themselves and as a result their ideologies went far among the people creating series of conflicts and brutal instances. The dealings between National Party and African National Congress were the foregrounds for all these conflicts. However South Africa took a new turn on 2nd of Feb. 1990. It is on this day that De Klerk in his opening address made to parliament announced that
- to repeal discriminatory laws. Through this provision there will be no discussion about the topics related to discriminations or the law that exist.
- lift up 30 years ban on leading anti-apartheid groups. These groups are specifically mentioned as ANC (African National Congress), PAC (Pan Africanist Congress), SACP (South African Communist Party) and UDF.
- End to Land Act. This led to the provision of owning land to every citizen of South Africa irrespective of any kind of discrimination.
- releasing Nelson Mandela, the ANC leader
- press freedom. The media was given the independence to declare and to bring the actual role played by each of the political parties. This was made to avoid diplomatic proceedings among leaders that eventually used to lead to nothing.
- suspend death penalty. There won’t be any death penalty but for some cases lifelong imprisonment was kept as an option.
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