Finding Information Sources
It is essential to support virtually every type of essay with hard facts and sound evidence. Indeed, this rule is one of the most fundamental ones when writing any academic text. In the same vein, it is important that students remember that all references and quotations should be properly cited. There are also some other troublesome tasks linked to finding sources of information. When dealing with in-text citation, however, it is not sufficient to merely cite various sources. For a written piece to appear professional, cited materials should be properly introduced.
How Does One Properly Introduce a Source?
Students often include a quotation within their text with little or no attempt to introduce it. This practice can make quotations appear random and disrupt the flow of writing. There are, however, a number of ways to include quotations so that they appear natural.
- When citing the words of another expert, researcher or critic, remember to provide a short sentence of introduction before the actual quotation or citation itself. Example: As John F Kennedy famously said in his inauguration speech, “Ask not what your country can do for you …”
- Start a sentence by paraphrasing part of the quotation you intend to use and then include the remainder of it. Fictional example: [original quote] Recent studies show that global warming is adversely affecting Earth’s precious resources (Johnson). Your paraphrased version: Judging by the findings of recent studies on global warming, Environmentalist Emanuel Johnson says that this problem is “adversely affecting Earth’s precious resources.”
- It is permissible to paraphrase a quotation (but not to interpret it so that its meaning is changed or lost) and still include the source’s name in parentheses at the sentence’s end.