Stem Cells Outline

Stem Cells 'Could Fight Genetic Diseases', NHS Choises. 2011

This article is based on the studies made by researchers from various institutes like Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Institut Pasteur in France, Sangamo BioSciences in the US. These studies were laboratory-based and with the use of an animal model component. This was the first known study with the use of two combinations of human tissue. The purpose was to use people’s cells that have genetic liver conditions and generate cells that would be able to transform into other types in order to fight genetic diseases with liver. After the testing of cells’ genetic sequence, it was found out that the mutation has been properly reformed in both chromosomes, with the little number of the iPSCs (induced pluripotent stem cells) out of three patients. These iPSCs had the possibility to develop into various types of cells and after the tests, where these transplanted cells were integrated into mouse livers, they begun to release and produce human proteins.  At first, these stem cells were not able to treat the disease, as they still had a generic mutation, but later they were found healthy liver cells after replacing the genetic sequence by function sequence.

Rana, Amen. Promising New Technique for Creating Stem Cells Using a Routine Blood Sample. University of Cambridge, 2012.

This article is about the researches published in Stem Cells: Translational Medicine journal. The study was oriented on stem cells that would fight against heart diseases funded by the British Heart Foundation (BHF) and Medical Research Council. There is outlined a way how scientists were trying to get the cells for induced pluripotent stem cells from a routine blood samples in order to be able to treat cardiovascular disease.  One of the important aspects is that this technology gives a new approach to build lab-based disease models that may be used to comprehend illnesses and perform drug testing. Knowing how to produce these iPS cells using blood samples gives a great potential for researches to push this technology forward.

Stem Cell Technology Could Help Harness Patients' Own Immune Cells to Fight Disease. Science Daily, 2013.

The article considers researches published in Cell Press journal about the process of immune cells regenerating and creating large numbers that would be long-lived and may indentify their specified targets like cancer cells and HIV-infected cells. These researches were made in order to develop treatment for patients with exhausted immune responses. During the techniques, different groups were involved. Known factors were used to revert T cells of mature immunity into iPSCs. The main course was to expand iPSC’s and coax them to distinguish back into T cells. There was also the other team that was working on T cells for the people that have malignant melanoma. The cells they developed were able to determine a protein called MART-1, which is shown on melanoma tumors.

Riordan, NH. Stem Cell Therapy Multiple Sclerosis, Journal of Translational Medicine, 2013.

The article considers researches to harness the power of Multiple Sclerosis. There is one type of stem cell that has regulatory properties for immune system; it is called mesenchymal stem cell. It has a special effect on the immune system that stops the attack on the myelin sheath. The myelin sheath is neuron insulator that helps communicate with each other properly. These mesenchymal stem cells may help regenerate myelin sheath of the affected neurons. During the researches, there was obtained the fat tissue samples through mini-liposuctions and also harvested from umbilical cord tissue. During treatment the adipose cell samples are thoroughly tested for anaerobic and aerobic bacteria and it takes a lot of time for these cells to be confirmed safe and be injected into the patients.

NIH Community Articles, Stem Cells Information, 2012.

Due to the researches made in 2004 by NIH-supported scientists, it has been discovered that women may be able to make new eggs. The scientists have challenged the common mammalian reproduction way where the female mammals are born with given number of eggs they may ever make.  The idea of blocked cell division was tested and it has been found that mice that were treated had no eggs remaining at the time of reaching adulthood. Making test on mice, they have discovered that female mouse may actually make new eggs, so the women of reproductive age may be also capable of making new eggs. These studies are extremely important as in the future this technique may help better understand the development of human egg and may lead to infertility treatment.

Stem Cell Research: Eye Diseases, Stem Cell Digest, 2012.

The article is based on researches made on stem cells that may produce eye structure.  Like in the human eye, it has been determined that retina structures form layers of cells and are able to communicate information. Having these studies it is possible to bring retina cells together into complex retina tissues. The fact that nowadays it is possible to grow this kind of retina structure out of blood cells is astonishing. The greatest thing is that blood is convenient to obtain as a source.

Advanced Cell Technology (ACT), the company that has a lot of patents is currently working with stem cell retina solutions. They are the first ones that use the technology to generate stable and firm cell lines such as retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells, for such eye diseases as macular degeneration. ACT shows the ability to help with visual function in rats with the RPE cells implementation and this transplantation performed in sub-retinal space that in several weeks becomes blind due to photoreceptor death.

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