Environmental impacts on evolution

Global change involves various alterations that occur in the earth crust over time. Climatic change is a facet that determines global change. Extinction of plant and animal species since climate change affects all ecological zones. Earth obtains heat and light from the main source sun. Heat obtained from the sun may be reflected, absorbed or dispersed back to space. All this results to the greenhouse effect that independently stabilize temperature.

Climate researchers are the key drivers in prediction of evolutional changes. They apply various techniques in research i.e. use of tree rings. A ring adds in each year of growth a tree undertakes, showing the season of growth the tree undertook. Researchers obtain the cloudiness, temperature and moisture of the ecological area from the ring. By applying, dendrology which is the scientific study of climate change by use of tree rings, researchers can now apply the knowledge in prediction of trends in climate change.

Tree rings can assist in documenting temperature and cloud cover of an ecological region. Having in mind that some tree such as bristlecone pine takes years to grow, can offer substantial information for prediction of climate changes in forthcoming years.

Prediction of climate changes may also be achieved by analysis of dead trees preserved in the museum. This would be achieved by correlating their rings to a living one. Greater records achieved help in making the prediction for the future. E.g.  Use of dead bristle rings in comparison with living one can offer a future signal of the ecological climate change expected.

Human activities, such as hunting, fishing, habitant conversion and destruction would be   used by scientists as parameters in prediction of climatic changes. Humans alter ecosystems by cutting down forests to pave a way for agricultural purposes. Global warning results and signs a red flag for coming seasons. By observing human activities, scientist can now predict on climate conditions expected in the future.

Amount of aerosols, which are microscopic particulates of liquid and solid, can be used in prediction of climate. Aerosols suspended in gas forms of dust particles, salt splashes, soot from forest fires and volcanoes floating in the air. Researchers use the statistics of the aerosols to predict climate change. ( Nriagu, 1994)

Through research, scientists have pinned out burn of fossils in smokestacks and vehicles as one cause of increased global warming. This has increasingly led to change in climate patterns on many ecological areas and in some cases leading to acid rain.

Environmental change gradually promotes climate change. Coastlines, temperature change results, availability of water declines. Relocation of people results leading to death of both plants and animals while others becomes extinct.

Human influence and activity on the environment has led to earth warming. Human has promoted degradation of the ozone layer exposing the earth with harmful ultraviolet radiations. In result animals and human are dying of cancer from the infrared rays. Human race is heading to extinction due to climatic changes.

Lake sediments layered at the bottom, also indicates length and severity of winter expected. Scientists use these layers in determining seasons and climate expected. Water level falls affect flora and fauna leading to death of both plants and animals. This in turn, has dimmed evolution of all the species.

Actions such as the volcanic eruption, continental drive, hurricanes, and glacial ice sheets affect climate. Environmental changes results affecting the evolution of human and plants. Climate change parameters helps in providing the world with signals to the above actions that may cost life. Record on climate change stimulates change in all activities that may affect the environment.

Climatic changes have promoted biodiversity. This has resulted to environmental degradation leading to mass extinctions of both plants and animals. In addition, species has profoundly extinct due to changes in the environment and climatic conditions. E.g. Biodiversity impacted on extinction of dinosaurs due to climate and environmental change. (Bortman, 2003)

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