Heredity and Environmental Factors
The question of how and why almost all children resemble their parents, lingers in the minds of many. Nevertheless, inheritance is the answer to this question. The character of a child is mostly inherited from the parents. Genetics is what makes inheritance possible (Kinder, 2004). A considerable number of traits that children have are genetically influenced; however, the environment influences one or two of them as well. Consequently, this article will talk about the significant influences that heredity and the environment have on the human characteristics.
Controlling the school environment is believed to have a significant impact on the development of a child. There are those children who may be uncomfortable living with others because they are stubborn, domineering or highly independent. Such children are the result of the failed home environment. It is possible to influence the hygiene of children and psychiatry is often employed to influence their mental thinking.Those children who have similar genetic arrangement, brothers, for example, they may live without a doubt in the same environment (Kinder, 2004).
It is evident that intelligence is influenced by both heredity and the environment. The environment influences traits like personality and the nature of an individual. On the other hand, heredity influences the general structure and appearance of a person; for example, few of them are eye and hair color, complexion and sicknesses Kinder (2004) asserts that, in the case of monozygotic twins, the genetic information on psychological and physical state of the kids should be equally similar. However, the dizygotic twins have different characteristics.
In addition, the environment can affect the development of an infant by influencing birth process. For instance, if parents have syphilis or HIV, the child could suffer from congenital birth defects (Kinder, 2004). Furthermore, if the child is raped or sodomized during their critical stages in growth, they might be scared and traumatized for a long time. Therefore, personality is the combination of an individual’s traits and the result of an interaction of both heredity and environmental effects.
Parenting and family environment help train the children appropriately. One or two concepts are often applied to ensure this aspect. Socialization is the first one; this is where children learn ideas in their development stages (McGolerick, 2011). They can be taught on the morals, ethics and their cultures in general. There is natural socialization where the young explore to learn. Additionally, there is planned socialization, where they are taught on the specific issues. Finally, there is positive and negative socialization which means good and bad learning respectively.
Another concept is the authoritarian parenting. Here, the parents have a high expectation for their child. It is characterized by the continuous presence of the parents in the development of the child. On the other hand, there is uninvolved parenting where the parents are nonexistent in the growth of their children (McGolerick, 2011). The child and parent stay detached in this setting.
Blended family at times influences the growth of a kid. This is a family that includes spouses and children from previous and current marriages living together. Similarly, dominant hierarchy is used to develop kids by some families. According to McGolerick (2011), this is where one dominant social group interacts to develop a ranking system. Finally, most of the American families often use the criteria of time out. It is a form of punishment where the child is separated from the rest or the environment where gross conduct has been reported.
In conclusion, heredity and environmental factors might affect child development either in a positive or a negative manner. Heredity is mostly due to genetics and aspects such as eye color and complexion may predominantly be hereditary. The environment consists of both external and internal factors that influence development. Families and parents also largely influence a child’s development. Time-outs, authoritative, blended families and uninvolved parenting are some of the factors that would directly affect development.
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