Global Crime Issues Paper
The modern trends in the criminal justice system demonstrate the growing globalization of different types of crimes. Criminals from different parts of the world tend to coordinate their efforts to achieve the maximum possible results and create additional difficulties for law enforcement agencies. The present paper identifies the most urgent and serious problems in this context as well as evaluates the effectiveness of the existing response mechanisms.
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There are several key crimes and criminal issues that may be identified on a global basis. The first issue refers to drug trafficking. Currently, it always includes the close cooperation between various criminal groups in different countries. They use a variety of criminal methods for maximizing the number of their customers and providing the requested drugs with the minimal risks. The second issue is terrorism. There are numerous terrorist organizations that aim at destabilizing the situation in different parts of the world as well as establishing their global dominance in the long run. The second issue is cyber-terrorism. Many criminals recognize that modern technologies create additional opportunities for implementing their criminal plans in the most effective way. For this reason, cyber-terrorism tends to become more widespread. Cyber-terrorists try to obtain people’s personal data or unjustified financial incomes due to manipulations or misrepresentations.
The International Criminal Police Organization is the major institution responsible for the close international police cooperation and addressing the major criminal threats at the global level. There are also different organizations that contribute to the close coordination among several countries or those that address only local criminal problems. Moreover, the United Nations regularly introduces new and innovative mechanisms for controlling the spreading of crimes worldwide with the major attention paid to the crime prevention. The typical measures taken by these organizations include analyzing the current trends, determining the major sources of threats, and designing effective interventions.
In particular, these organizations try to specify those countries and regions that face the maximum risks. The proportional redistribution of funds among these countries is possible to ensure the optimal addressing of the major criminal threats. The international organizations also try to develop more effective mechanisms for preventing the major types of threats such as the close monitoring of the situation, advocating the urgent legislation reforms, and promoting the international stability. In general, the organizations try to adjust their policies to the observed dynamics of the global threats in this field.
It is reasonable to examine the recent real-world example of cyber-crime to analyze the strategies pursued by criminals. The US Democratic National Committee (DNC) has provided the extensive evidence about the hackers’ unauthorized access to their information and servers for around a year. The distinct feature of the analyzed case is that this group of hackers was closely related to the Russian government and intelligence. It outlines one of the aspects of cyber-crime that is often neglected by modern experts. Some governments may also utilize the potential and services of criminal groups for obtaining information about the strategies or activities of the strategic organizations from foreign countries.
It seems that the cooperation between the national governments and organized crime groups is based on the following motivating factors. Firstly, some governments (especially those that are in the state of a direct opposition to others such as Russia) may be interested in using the services of organized crime groups for obtaining the valuable information. They may offer substantial funds for their services. Secondly, the organized crime groups are interested in cooperating with national governments not only due to the possibility of obtaining some extra incomes but also due to the unofficial protection and the possibility of lobbying their interests in this country.
These benefits are especially high in relation to crime criminals. As they have the opportunity of physically remaining in their native country while committing their crimes, they may enjoy almost the universal protection from their government. It is also observed in a given case. The close analysis provided by the DNC has revealed that two independent state-sponsored groups organized the hackers’ attacks of the organization’s servers. Both of them were controlled implicitly by the Russian government. The hackers used the Python programs for initiating their hidden attack. Despite the provided evidence, the Russian representatives continue to deny their involvement in this process.
This cyber-crime has a worldwide significance for the following reasons. Firstly, the hackers and their supporters have received the access to a large amount of secret data stored by the DNC. Secondly, the entire operations were organized by the Russian government. It increases the potentially dangerous effects of this crime due to the substantial opportunities open to the national governments. Thirdly, it contributes to the growing risks in the sphere of international relations. If the larger number of government become cooperating with organized crime groups, the entire system of international law may be threatened.
The worldwide criminal justice system handled this crime through considering the available evidence and determining the organizations and individuals responsible for such large-scale attacks on the DNC’s servers. With the help of the corresponding web and criminal justice experts, it was possible to determine the two groups of hackers supported by the Russian government. The analysis had revealed that hackers were not interested in any personal information. Instead, they focused on the communication systems and the organization’s servers. It also proved that their interests and motivations extended beyond the traditional criminals’ goals.
Moreover, the fact that they operated independently was a distinctive feature of the Russian intelligence system. It often utilizes this approach to obtain the objective information and minimize the possibility of obtaining the unreliable information. The Russian Embassy spokesman was officially informed of the situation, but he denied the involvement of the Russian government in these attacks.
In general, the effectiveness of the international criminal justice systems in this case is very low. Although the hackers were identified, the existing legal mechanisms do not allow punishing them due to the implicit support of the foreign government. The major problem does not refer to the fact they are physically located in Russia but to the absence of the effective legal mechanisms of enforcing the international law in such cases. Thus, it is reasonable to advocate the radical reforms in this sphere. They should include the obligations of all governments to respect the international law and recognize the higher significance of international legislation institutions in comparison with national ones.
To summarize, the scope of global crime issues tends to increase nowadays. It is caused both by the intense globalization and the emergence of new technologies. The major global crime threats include drug trafficking, terrorism, and cyber-crimes. The international organizations try to organize their cooperation in this field, but numerous problems still exist. The analyzed case reveals that some national governments may cooperate with hackers for obtaining some secret information. The existing legal mechanisms allow identifying criminals but do not enable punishing them accordingly. Therefore, the serious reforms are needed to ensure the compliance of all governments without any exception to the norms of international law. If this challenge is met, the general situation in the sphere of organized crime at the global level may improve.
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