A Good Leader
“First comes thought; then organization of that thought, into ideas and plans; then transformation of those plans into reality. The beginning, as you will observe, is in your imagination.” said Napoleon Hill.
Every organization is founded by definite person or group of people who are considered to be leaders and responsible for organizational success. It is extremely important to reach success because organization without success is its leader without proper features.
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Each organization has its definite mission and goals. Speaking about goals, it should be mentioned that they build the basis of the strategic planning and relationships within the organization. Motivation system is also based on the main goals. Moreover, it is better with their help to take control over the employees, process of their work, and also estimate the results of certain workers, departments and the whole organization.
The complex of the organizational goals are established considering the work with customers, revenue of the organization, needs and welfare of the employees, social responsibility. Moreover, the goals are determined by the definite mission of the organization. Mission of the organization, in turn, determines the aim of the organization, main aspects of its activity. What is more, mission should represent the values and interests of the group members. In general, mission shows the content of the organizational activity, the reference points of its existence and the main tendency in its functioning.
In order to determine the conclusive condition that the definite organization seeks for, the leader should properly estimate the goals of the organization. What is more, goals should be adequate; it should be possible to estimate them objectively and find out whether the aim of the organization is achieved. Besides, goals should be realistic so that the mission would be completed. At the same time, goals of the organization should be flexible in order to correct or change them depending on the situation within the organization, on the economic and political situation or even on the natural conditions (it depends what field the organization has chosen to work in). Besides, it is important for leader to formulate the goals so that it would be possible to accurately understand the needed results of the activity. It is rather essential to determine compatible goals; in this case the organization would work for its benefit without any obstacles. At last, the leader should take into account the needs and interests of everyone who takes part in the process of achieving the aim of the organization. So, if the leader would comply with all these requirements, the organization could definitely be successful and function for its benefit and welfare of the workers.
As it was mentioned above, the organization would act appropriately and reach its aim and success in case if the leader would fulfill his duties. A good leader should have some features, characteristics and personal qualities so that to lead the group to success. First of all, the leader is the one who develops the staff, he create positive and friendly working relationships. Moreover, he should be easy and flexible to approach. One of the most important features is the ability to handle stress and pressure at work. At last, he should view himself as a part of the group, not above it.
The leader is the one who makes the best result in the organizational success. He plays different roles in the group or organization: he can be a coach, for example, for newcomers; a dictator in some cases or for some ungovernable members of the group; a friend for everyone and every time; a parent for his co-workers when they really need the one; a chief if only formal relationship is needed. That’s why, it is not an easy task to be a good leader. Lao Tzu said, “When the best leader’s work is done, people say, “We did it ourselves!”. This quote describes how the leader of the group should manage all the work so that people were regarded; his task is to inspire team with confidence and energy. Each organization has definite goals, and each leader, like a dream maker, implements these goals into life.
Leadership is the ability to influence members of the group so that to direct their activity to achieving the goals of the group. Each leader has three main features: - authority, - influence, - power. Speaking about authority, it should be mentioned that it gives the legal right to the leader to influence the behavior of other people. Influence in turn is the behavior of one person that changes the behavior of another. At last, such ability to change the behavior of the person is called the power. It is clear that a good leader should use his authority so that not to abuse of power. Depending on character, temper, habits, each leader chooses his own type of “power”. Nevertheless, it is better to combine “standard power” with “the power of example”. In this case leader can be the example to follow without compulsion or commands. Having power over other people, the leader can also use different types of influence. Among them scientists distinguish conviction, influence through the participation and involvement. Conviction is rather strict method of influence; in this case it is hard to get organizational success. And what about influence through the participation and involvement? They are the best types of influence, as the leader promotes the free exchange of information, he encourages the members of the group. What is more, people will work better and do their best so that their organization could succeed. In other words, not only effective work or devotion of the workers to their job can lead to organizational success, but also appropriate leadership that organizes workers to do their tasks properly.
Rather important fact about management of the organization is motivation of the workers. In general, motivation is the process of encouraging the employees to work so that to achieve the goals of the organization. Motivation is something inside of the person. If the worker is motivated and satisfied with his/her job, it will lead to rather good results and organizational success. Organization should be well-planned, the leader should develop proper staff: educated and intelligent workers, who are skilled, responsible, persistent and devoted to their work. Nevertheless, the expected result cannot be achieved if workers are not well-motivated. A good leader should find personal approach to the workers so that they were interested in organizational success and work for its benefit. When the leader finds out approach to the group members and is able to motivate them properly, he is considered to be professional and a good leader of the organization.
It all goes about effective management. It means that goals, needs, expectations, values and attitudes of the employees are combined with the goals of the organization. If such combination is achieved, the workers will start self-motivation. They will understand the main goals, mission of the organization and will do their best so that to achieve organizational success. Everything depends on the leader’s ability to motivate his workers. It is not a secret that workers would work better in the friendly and positive climate of the organization, in strong and stable group with good position of their organization, and for experienced and intelligent leader. That’s why, if the leader made the proper conditions and motivate his workers considering their own values and needs, he would be considered to be a good chief.
Moreover, there are different theories that explain human motivation. Douglas McGregor was the one of scientists to explain this phenomenon. He created and developed Theory X and Theory Y that discuss human motivation from different views.
Theory X considers workers to be rather lazy and unwilling to work. In this theory of motivation workers are completing their tasks only because of salary. McGregor suggests that employees will not show any ambitions for work; will avoid this job and responsibility when it is possible. It is a pity but a lot of managers tend to this theory. What is more, most of workers are really not completely satisfied with their work. In such case, the leader should take a strict control over the employees. He is like a dictator. Nevertheless, the workers have no choice but to obey his orders and instructions.
So, what about Theory Y? It is opposite to the Theory X. according to this theory; workers are even self-motivated and can practice self-control. They are devoted to their job, they understand the importance of what they do and for what they do this. The leader should not control every stage of the work; there is no need for him to be strict and severe. Employees are ambitious and responsible; they are willing to work properly so that to achieve success. There are not a lot of cases of such situation in the organization, moreover, a few managers tend to use such a democratic style of leadership and motivation. Nevertheless, Theory Y is considered to be rather effective and good motivating.
Later Theory Z was also established. What is more, there are three different approaches to this theory: - one by Abraham H. Maslow; - “Japanese Management” by Dr. William Ouchi; - Managerial Effectiveness by W. J. Reddin. In this essay the emphasis is made on the Ouchi’s approach because this concept shows the best the organizational success. The main point in Ouchi’s theory is that the leader provides for his workers the job for life. It increases self-motivation of the workers and their devotion and responsibility. What is more, the leader provides appropriate conditions for their workers in and out of the work. That’s why, this theory shows rather realistic and effective management.
Speaking about different theories of the leadership, in this essay it should be mentioned about three major of them: - autocratic (authoritarian); - democratic (participative); - Free Reign (delegative). These styles defined Kurt Lewin who was a famous psychologist in various fields, one of which was organizational psychology. He determined such styles examining management styles and cultures, and also leadership climates. It is rather easy to characterize each style of leadership by Kurt Lewin.
Authoritarian climate is determined with a strict power of leader who himself identify all the tasks and specify work among members of the organization. It is really hard to work in such climate but this style proved to be efficient. To give the example of this type of leadership, the simplest way would be to mention some politicians. Nevertheless, even big industries have their own “autocratic stars”. Shining example is Howell Raines, the Executive Editor of the New York Times from 2001 until 2003. The New York Times is one of the highest quality newspapers in the world; it is hard to imagine the daily pressure publishing this newspaper. Howell was considered to be a difficult person to work with. Moreover, he used the policy involving all the resources of the newspaper so that to cover everything that he thought to be important or interesting. Though his co-workers found him rather strict person, the newspaper achieved its organizational success. In this example essay has shown that even in the democratic world autocratic style of management works successfully.
However, there are cases when leader doesn’t have enough information so that to plan something or to allocate responsibilities. In such cases it is better to use democratic style; the leader allows other members of the group to make decisions during main tasks of their work. Even though the final decision makes the leader, other co-workers may feel that they greatly contributed to the organizational success. Using this type of leadership, it is possible to gain more respect. What is more, it is not hard to give examples of such leadership climate as it is widespread all over the world. Nevertheless, considering organizational success, it is better to mention only effective managerial achievements. This essay will describe the example with Dwight David “Ike” Eisenhower. He was the 34th President of the United States; besides he had been a five-star general during World War II and a Supreme Commander of the Allied Forces in Europe. His task was to convince everyone to work together; he had to make the Allied forces work altogether developing a common strategy. Their victory proved that collaborative efforts always lead to mutual benefit. This example has also shown that this style can be rather successful in some particular situations.
Toni Morrison said that somebody has to take responsibility for being a leader. And it’s definitely true. So, some person, becoming a leader, is like a freshman; he is not aware of all the principles of the organization, he has not yet got known with the members of the group, and he doesn’t not the circumstances and climate in which the organization develops. This leadership climate is defined by delegative style of leadership. In this case he allows members of the group to make some serious decisions. Nevertheless, the leader remains responsible for the results of the work. Another case when the leader let his co-workers to take control over the process of organizational activity is when the leader has a deep trust and confidence in his employees. It is typical for highly educated, professional and skilled group of workers. This essay would like to give the example but without characterizing some definite organization, firm or institution. Delegative leadership is common to different game development organizations, web-studios, translation bureau. There is no need to control the workers during their work in these cases. The leader gives determined task and employee is responsible for the result and quality of the work.
In all situations, whatever style of leadership you would choose, the key point is the ability of the leader to organize the group, to motivate them and take control over the results. Organizational success is possible when all these features will be gained. Motivated workers, friendly climate are aimed to achieve success.
In conclusion it should be stated that it is not an easy task to be the leader. Moreover, it is very hard to be a good leader. It is not only about his/her professionalism, it is also about his/her ability to organize the group, to make proper and definite strategic planning, to motivate and encourage his/her workers, to determine appropriate mission and goals of the organization, to take control over the process of achieving the organizational aim and to be responsible for everything that is happening within the organization. In other words a good leader is someone who is proficient not only with the needed theory of management but is also experienced in practice. Organizational success is determined by effective leadership. This essay has discussed all aspects of this statement so that to prove it.
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