Human Resource Management
I am a dedicated user of Apple Inc. products. Apple Company engages in manufacturing, designing and marketing of mobile phones and multimedia devices, music players and personal computers. The company also stocks a variety of services such as Software’s, networking solution, third party digital content, peripherals and many home use appliances. Some of its mostly bought products include iPod, iPhones, mac, apple TV, software appliances, the iOs and mac operating system. This paper is set out to analysis the applicable literature on human resource management at Apple Company.
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Factors in the External Environment which may Impact on the Organization of Apple Company with Regard to Managing People
Undoubtedly the most significant task of human resource management in Apple Company is to face and deal with the people in the company so as to bring the best out of them and unlocking their potential to enhance the company’s success. However, there some external factors beyond the company's control (Shaw 1990).
External factors are the uncontrollable forces that affect how an organization operates its daily activities. These factors cannot be controlled by the organization management, but their effects in the organization can be managed. It is thus essential for any organization to put up robust management strategies to counter the negative effects of such external factors. This is particularly beneficial when it comes to managing people in the organization (Shaw 1990). As a human resource manager, one need to device exceptional operating, production, and marketing and have excellent management skills.
Organizations, whether they be business, educational, industrial, government, service or health focused, they are all made up of people both women and men. An effective human resource management office requires a thorough understanding of reward system, job design and group influence within the organization (Stone 2002). People in the organization are the main assets and thus external factors that may affect them negatively have to be looked at keenly. These external factors are;
Laws within a country govern the formal rules that Apple Inc. have to play by. These laws may dictate the minimum or the maximum wages. Legal laws demanding for an increase in wages can lead to people in the organization to boycott their duties so as to ask for salary increment (Robbins 1996). This can makes human resource management harder for the human resource department of Apple Inc.
Political issues can at times influence the human resource management in any organization. Apple company many spend a lot of money trying to lobby so as to influence political decision makers. This can in one way or another affect the company’s staff members. It may increase the organizations active role in politics where they might give their sentiments or dissatisfaction. Politics can also have some influence on human resource management of Apple Company. Politicians may increase taxes and thus dramatically affect the salaries of the employees in the company. An increase in taxes can also lead to department’s budgets being trimmed (Ivancevich 1998). Money trimmed in these budgets may be the one used for activities like employees performance appraisal.
Technological advances will highly affect how human resource management divisions conduct their business. For example, as an alternative to having bringing staff in for physical meetings, they can now use video calling services, send emails or short messages.
Social and Cultural Factors
The demographics and mood of the population make up a social area that can influence the management of people at Apple Company. People from different walks of life may affect the human resource management, due to different cultural values, practices and taboos, some groups of people may find it hard to interact in the company and thus affecting their management (Rue 1991).
Current Issues Important that are Important to Management
The management of people at work has grown over a long period time right from the period of systematic management. The tag used to designate the management of people at work has been in the state of fluctuation in response to the vibrant organization environment. Human resource management is a multidisciplinary topic which pulls its philosophies and practices from many foundations (Milkovich & Milkovich 1991). The following are some of the current issues which seem indispensable.
Movement from Personnel Management to Human Resource Management
Emergence of human resource management as a conception at the beginning of 1980 stimulated most British colleges and business schools to begin departments of human resource management. Despite of this remaining cloudy, that the application of personnel management has been surpassed by human resource management. Human resource management has stimulated the dispassionate view of the purposes in two senses (Dessler 2000). One is that there has been a paradigm change from the conservative personnel emphasis with staff well-being issue identifying with psychological, economic and social needs of employees to more consideration on organization center approach. The next way in which human resource management has steered to dispassionate of personnel is taking assessments based on the outcome of research workout and not the necessity to appease employees
The Changing Practice of Functional Areas of People Management
This is another current issue in the human resource management. The level of changes may not be appreciated in the practice of people management till they are observed in the operative purposes of people management. This includes; recruitment and selection, compensation, training, man power development, employee appraisal and employee motivation.
Recruitment and Selection of Employee Resourcing or Capital Resourcing
Not like in the past when personnel manager’s duties were known as fire and hire staff in the organization, and the companies were overstuffed with high labor costs, the present trend is to device ways or means of decreasing the labor force to a few figure of sound, competent and knowledgeable employees with plentiful functional skill. The earlier obligation to give lasting jobs has significantly changed and short period, part time jobs or temporally or outsourcing agency staffs are being used in today’s human resource management (Gowan 2005).
Wages and Salary Administration to Strategic Reward Management
This is a new concept in human resource management. Remuneration or reward management is concerned with the devising and application of strategies and guidelines to reward people equitably, fairly and equally according to an individual’s value or contribution toward the success of the organization. Reward scheme is essentially aimed at enticing and attracting skilled manpower to an organization, to maintain and motivate employees to higher and finally to retain skilled employee (Gowan 2005).
Employee Performance Appraisal to Performance Management
Employee performance evaluation is done annually and centrally after the contribution of the direct supervisor. The result is then determined by the personnel office. With the planned human resource management in focus, consideration is now the only responsibility of the leading line managers, getting provision when demanded from the human resource office (Robbins 1996).
Future Issues that are Important to the Management
The future of human resource management in the Apple Inc. need to be both technically and quantitatively sound, it must possess the ability of being strategically relevant to the profitability objective of the company (Shaw 1990). Human resource in the company needs to justify every cent spent on the employees in the form of education, incentives, training and any other non-financial rewards given to employees. Human resource department in the company is just about to witness automation of activities in the entire Human resource department, even the multi-national companies will essentially be run by few specialists (Shaw 1990). Therefore, information technology competency that goes beyond just entering of data will soon became a necessity among the human resource personnel in the company. Besides, Human resource manager determined to succeed in the future will be required to know more than basic human resource skills. Possession of sound business knowledge will fundamentally be one of the prerequisites for the profession.
The business models that influence the management of the people in the apple company is anticipated to change drastically in future. The pace of change will essentially be fundamental in the next decade. Globalization, technology, demographic and other related factors are anticipated to be some of the factors that will influence the organizational culture and structures in the Apple Company (Stone 2002).
Management of people will present significant business challenges in the future. Businesses are currently facing the realities of skill shortage, and management of people through creation of effective workforce (Stone 2002). This is an issue that will also affect the Apple Company. By the year 2022, radical and dynamic change in business model will make Apple company face issues such as the disappearance of the boundary between the home and work life as the company continues to assume greater responsibility for the social welfare of their employees.
The role of Human resource in the Apple Company will also undergo a fundamental change. In past, Human resource profession has been assumed by many as being a service oriented and passive profession, but in the setting of future workplace and business environment it will undergo a fundamental change (Robbins 1996). The Human resource will became the central of the organization by taking on a broader people responsibility by incorporating and influencing many aspects of the business. The main function of the Human resource manager will be to drive the corporate social responsibility agenda within the company. In addition, the function will be seen as transactional and almost entirely outsourced. In this form, the Human resource manager will fundamentally exist in a new form outside the company and will predominantly focus on people outsourcing (Robbins 1996).
External Factors Affecting Human Resources
There are numerous external factors outside the Apple Company that influence the management of the employees within the Company. Therefore, effective human resource department is necessary in order to deal with these external factors as part of its function. One of the factors is the availability of a labor pool (Rue 1991). The fundamental function of the human resource department in the Apple Company is to maintain enough staffing levels. The external factor which influences the Company’s ability to recruit qualified staffs is the availability. When a company wishes to hire an individual with specialized skills and competency, it may essentially have difficulties in locating and identifying a suitable candidate for the position, especially when the same skill sets are on higher demand throughout the industry (Rue 1991). The geographical location of the company also influences the availability of a labor pool because the company may be forced to recruit candidates outside the region especially when the current labor pool is not large enough.
Introduction of the new government workstation rules is another external factor that requires the company’s human resource department to ensure the company is compliant. Government regulations normally influence how the company conducts the recruitment, training, compensating and even disciplining of the employees (Dessler 2002). Any mistake or flawing of the government regulation in relation to the employees’ rights could result to sanctions against the company. Furthermore, employees, customer, vendors and prospective employees can even file a lawsuit against the company. An example of government regulation is the famous American with Disabilities Act. This Act requires all companies to modify their workstations in order to accommodate employees with disabilities (Dessler 2002).
Political climate is another external factor that can have a significant influence in the people’s management in a company and subsequent human resource department. For instance, when the government decides to increase the taxes or cut down spending on the businesses, this normally affects the operations of the company (Gowan 2005). Budgetary allocation to the department of human resource may be trimmed in order to reduce the running cost of the company. This means that employee’ oriented benefits such on the job training, reward and apprenticeship program may be halted.
The economic climate also influences the operations of the human resource department; this is because no any other external factor affects the company operations more than economic conditions. When the interest rates are high, and borrowing of the capital became expensive, the company ability to expand is usually hindered. When the capital in the company is scarce, the economy often tends to shrink in response (Gowan 2005). These effects are usually transferred to the human resource department because of its importance the operations of the company. Harsh economic conditions normally mean drastic changes in how the human resources department is run in the company.
Globalization imposes a considerable influence on the Human resource functions in a company. The process of recruiting, training, motivating, compensating and retaining of employees in a company are usually influenced and guided and influenced by the global perspective (Gilson &Wager 2000). As every country becomes increasingly globalized, cumulative learning and skill of its workforce normally becomes a competitive asset. The benefit between company’s employees and globalization are usually mutual and forms a virtuous circle. Employees with exceptional skills and training normally attract the Human resource personnel of competitive company’s which invest and offers an excellent job, which in turn generates additional experience and training. This global perspective enables the Company to tap best skills from all over the world. For instance, in Apple Inc. employees are normally drawn from all over the world (Gilson &Wager 2000).
Human Resource Functions to Respond to External Demands
Recruitment of employees is the most fundamental function of the human resource department that helps in responding to the external issues facing the Company. This function ensures that a company selects the most competent and skillful person form a sea of applicant (Salaman 1992). The Human resource department is involved in the selection and evaluation of ability and competency of the potential employee with regard to the company needs. Recruitment of appropriate employee increases the values of the company; consequently, it becomes the right pathway for the company to respond to external factors through achievement of departmental and organizational goals and objectives (Salaman 1992).
Another major function of the human resource department is to motivate employees. This is usually done through promotion, incentives and reward especially to the best performer in the Company. Evaluation of those employees who have exceeded the expectation is done by the Human resource department for compensation (Brinkerhoff & Gill 1994). Numerous researches in organizational behavior have indicated that rewarding of employees is usually one of the incentives that produce satisfactory performance that keep the company trend on the track.
Human resource department in a company is placed with the responsibility of ensuring that organizational plans are adequately integrated with future engagement that involves employees (Brinkerhoff & Gill 1994). It is normally imperative to ensure that all employees in the organization are enough to increase the value to the organization. Planning also ensures that the people in the company have a general direction which they strive to move toward. Other functions include; remuneration, training, improvement of organizational culture among others. These functions help the company to have a clear direction that became effective in responding to the external issues facing the company (Brinkerhoff & Gill 1994).
Human resource management at Apple Company is to manage people. There are both the negative and positive aspects of human resource management; first the human resource department enriches the company through recruitment procedures. Human resource department also ensure that the staff follow a general direction by regularly reminding and clarifying to them the organizations short term and long term goals (Dessler 2000). It is also responsible for organizing compensation and incentive packages to the people in the company. In addition to these benefits, some rules made by the department may be unfavorable to the company.
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