Military doctrines are methods and principles that are approved and are very useful to large military organizations as they provide them with common outlook and same basis for operations. They are employed as basis of training in most military organizations as well as command and control. The character of these doctrines is very prescriptive at the tactical level. It helps organization to make simplified decisions that could be complex under duress of combat as it limits the range of choices that are deemed paramount during certain stages in operations. It is very vital to have these doctrines in military operations as enables all constituents of an army to view similar situations in same manner hence its significance should not underrated. During adaptive planning in military operations, tactical doctrines act as an initial element of the preparation course as it is useful in the improvisation of the solutions to critical problems that arise at the outset of hostilities.
The integrated planning that was done for the post war Iraq was extraordinary even if the Defense Department had some limitations since it failed to create very comprehensive policies. The Philippine counterinsurgency has had a lot of merits in the sense that it does not disclose any inefficiency during operations. It was a unified campaign because a handful of semi-autonomous and regional counterinsurgencies carried out in uniformity. Sequentially, counterinsurgency is effective only if the barriers such as hostile environment are not in place.
Power is dynamic and therefore it can never be assumed as a static phenomenon. Power in a population will be experienced and enjoyed by various people at various levels as per the hierarchy of position they enjoy in the society. The disadvantaged sections will be the powerless people and their powerlessness may be caused by different factors such as social, economical, cultural, and gender factors. Due to the powerless condition the standard of the living condition of the powerless sections will be much lower than that of the powerful people. The poor living condition will act as contributory factor in deteriorating the mental and physical health of the poor. In military Synchronization and coordination of the battlefield functions have considered by futurist to enable any army operation to get point penetration. This enables a country to achieve a decisive maneuver against the armies that posing threat to security in their own country Some traditional models plans are underway to aid in security purposes and to enable Europe win wars with their opponents.(Russell, 1990).
Empowerment of the powerless people is an important aspect of modernist approaches of social work. Clear understanding of the power inequalities is also very important. As far as the power associated with politicians are concerned the power is structural. Social position of politician allows them to attain power. There is also involvement of power in the case of interaction between genders.
The process of providing power to the powerless is empowerment and as a part of this process it is important to identify the powerless individuals or social groups. They carried the information that the country was to be ruled by the Filipinos without any interferences of the colonial government. For counterinsurgency to achieve high level of efficacy, indigenous people should be used when conducting operations with the non-indigenous populations. In order to outwit the insurgents, government agencies should work in unified manner to avoid any rift that can be used by the insurgents to defeat their opponents. It is the duty of the government to create well established economical and psychological policies.(Michaels, 2005).
America has not been in position to conduct the counterinsurgency as it can conducts institutionalized counterinsurgency warfare. The country employs the idea of learning in the field because what is being learned in the field become more conceptualized and becomes part of a structured counterinsurgency. U.S. counterinsurgency policies refer mainly to higher levels. The U.S. has adopted a moralistic and ideological tone when waging war on Iraq. In general, counterinsurgency policy requires a barely credible amount of flexibility, forbearance and ability to be sensible. U.S. was striving hard to fight the theory of counterinsurgency since inception. Part of America’s war of independence involves insurgency against the British. The U.S. has also taken a step in fighting insurgency campaigns against the South during the Civil War. But the first on a large scale was the counter-insurgency campaign in the Philippines, 1899 to 1902.U.S. has a long way to achieve an effective counterinsurgency theory at both operational and tactical level. This is due to the fact that U.S. armed forces is a large behemoth and the bureaucracy, hence no space for flexibility and pragmatism. Counterinsurgency is a very complicated doctrine that calls for a lot measures such as diplomatic, legal and cultural understanding. It requires an ability that is going to be manpower-intensive to employ (Russell, 1990).
As a conclusion it can be said that the influential presence of power is felt in every levels of individual as well as social life. Power is not distributed equally and therefore the powerful and the powerless are coexisting in every society. The analytical study conducted on the issues related to power on the basis of post modernist theories are in contradiction to the Marxian approaches and scientific thinking. Therefore a social work professional must approach the issue critically so that the problems faced by the less powerful people in accessing the services can be identified. By properly identifying such problems, the social work professionals can contribute constructively in the process of empowerment of the disadvantaged groups. For example, while dealing with the issues related to the sufferings of poor people who are victims of mental depression, the social work professional must be able to ensure that all the necessary social, medical, and emotional services are made accessible to them, irrespective of the power they enjoy or experience. It is also important to observe that the social work professionals are bound to follow the guidelines and procedures set by the respective governments. It is also important to mention the involvement of political powers in such matters.
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