The Costs And Benefits Of Migration For Developing Countries
This paper handles the costs and positive effects of the migration on the upcoming economies in the world. The paper will start by first giving the meaning of migration and development. An in depth discussion on the positive and negative effects of migration shall be covered. A conclusion will come at the end of this paper giving a preview of what the paper covers. Migration is the movement of people from one locality to another over a long distance. This movement is normally in search of favorable conditions in their lifestyle, thus, the movement from developing to developed economies of the world. Development is the practice of cost-effective and collective change heavily in reliance of structured and environmental issues and interactions.
Human population is never static. This is because of advancement in the level of technology. Over the recent past, people have been able to move from one location to another. Though this migration has been difficult, improved technology such as airplanes and electric trains has made it possible. Developing countries has benefitted because of this. High technologies advanced in developed countries penetrate to developing countries and thus giving them an equal chance to develop just as developed countries.
Among the first major benefit of migration is creation of employment opportunity. Developing countries has a variety of skills but it is often unutilized because lack of opportunity. Migration has therefore enabled the skilled labor from developing countries to access job market thus earning them a living. Apart from creating employment, the income earned is remitted back home and therefore as a result of this, the living standards in developing countries is improved.
Apart from the case above, migration has also led to improved and skilled labor in developing countries. This is because individual from developing countries move to developed countries and acquire skills in developed countries institutions such as universities and colleges. An individual for example who migrates from a less developed country such as Africa to America will be able to advance their human capital since they will get advance course, which never existed in their country. On the return back to their motherland, they will be able to express what they learn and in this way developing their country (Spencer, 2011).
Secondly, migration has reduced the level of competition for job opportunities. People who move from developing countries to developed countries reduce the labor supply and thus ensuring that the little available is fully utilized. This therefore enable them to earn a living which can letter be re-invested therefore improving less developed countries economic level. In addition, the people who migrated to developed countries will continuously remit some amount back home, which will improve further the country’s economic level.
Thirdly, though indirectly, as people from developing countries migrated to developing country there will be exchange of culture which may eventually force the citizens of developed countries to tour the developing countries and learn about this. This will earn developing countries a lot of income, as these people from developed countries will be coming as tourist. This will boost tourism and the money received goes to viable projects, which will lead to transition of these countries from developing to developed countries.
Fourthly and most important is that migration will enable transfer of technology from develop to developing countries. This is so certain as the migrants will return home at one point in time. This will therefore enable a technology developed in developed countries to spread all the way to the mother country of these migrants. They will set a base from which the developing countries can pick from. A good example of this is the use of computers. Initially this was developed in developing countries but as the emigrants return home, majority of them brought the laptops and went back home with them and in the process, this light was seen in the initial country of the migrants, that is the less developed countries.
Migration also benefits the developing countries in the sense that it will open up market for their produced. Citizens of developing countries who migrates to developed countries helps identify a gap which they later communicate back home as a newly target market for developing countries produced. Since they know the customers at the ground level, they can easily persuade them to use this product thus strengthening the market area covered.
Business will also come up because of migration. As the number of migrating residence increases, the transport sector will nourished. This is because developing countries will felt the need of increasing the number of airplane to transport these passengers. Since it is not always the case that foreigners manage the transport sector, it will enable the local investors managing this business and therefore earning foreign exchange.
At times, developing countries could have had a chance to developed but its resources is been outstretch because of the high number of residence. These exact a lot of pressure on factors of production such as land, capital and rent. Because of migration, therefore, some citizens will move elsewhere and thus the few remaining can optimize on the resources available. This benefits the developing countries and therefore giving them a chance to develop just as the developed countries (Brettell & Hollifield, 2000). Most countries remain underdeveloped because of lack of ideas. They do have the necessary resources to invest in yet they do not have any viable investment opportunity. Residence of developing countries that have had a chance to migrate abroad can come together and identify a business plan for their country. Since they are in a better position as compared to residence back home, they can formulate a good plan, which may see developing countries growing to be a developed country.
New business ideas developed above could also facilitate foreign direct investment, which in turn could increase the gross domestic product for the developing country. This generates employment giving a number of residences at least a chance to earn a living at the end of the day. The increased links of different cultures also leads to increased trade. This benefit the developing counties more as they share the products they have hence giving rise to new opportunities once two different people meet with different background. Despite the number of cost to developing countries because of migration, it is still beneficial and serves as a reason behind the industrialization and development of developing countries.
The drawbacks of migration from the developing countries are many as shall be discussed herein. The brain drain is experience. This is the movement of highly skilled personnel to other counties where the labor demanded there has adequate measure and policies well covered. This deprives the home country the ability to utilize the expertise it has engineered through the strainers exercise of education and training. There is loss of remittances from these persons’ who move to other countries. The level of innovation also expected from these highly skilled emigrants is lost to other nations. Investment in the health and education sector as well is lost significantly due to the continued brain drain. The brain overflow in the accepting countries of the migrants, may lead to inappropriate use of these highly skilled personnel. Their skills may be degraded. Generally, brain drain leads to poverty and highly affects the economy of the developing countries (Samers, 2010).
The second disadvantage for the developing county is the demographics. This is where the migrants are young and energetic who are highly productive and should be taking care of the old and retired. This causes the shrinking number of the productive citizens worsening the conditions on the developing countries. There is also social effect on the young people who will have to grow in absence of the entire family. The issue of effect on the gender roles is experienced heavily in the developing countries. The people here have challenges coming to terms when the migrants are more of one gender than the other. This mostly happens where the male have migrated leaving the women o say the mothers to head their homes. This means the responsibilities will have changed and the mothers have to play two roles in decision making. The roles played by the gender heavily affected will be reversed. This means that the societal norms will be changed and takes time to adapt hence resulting in stagnant growth in economies of the developing country.
Racial discrimination is what the migrants face in the developed counties. This is where the host countries’ population feels that their jobs have been taken by the emigrants hence causes trouble for them. There is always a feeling that emigrants come from a poo society, lack knowledge of the culture where he has been hosted, knows nothing of the language spoken, and this is dangerous since they fall prey to the migrants who will take advantage. They will be accused of being thieves when they are seen anywhere, and being labeled as criminals just because of their color of country of origin. This makes others feel alienated (Guild, 2009).
Familiarity is another issue for the emigrants. When they moved from their developing counties, they are not familiar with the developed country. This makes them lonely since there is no one to visit or to share in form of communication. There is no visit to the family and friends in the country. Many will argue that there are many advantages of people migrating, but there is a hidden feeling of the migrants of what they underwent in order to adapt to the environment. Getting a job also in the host country is not such an easy task. People are not always friendly to visitors; hence, one may be killed. Many others get imprisoned just because of a misunderstanding bought about by language barriers. It has been heavily criticized that migrants have more challenges adapting to the host counties surroundings than adapting to the wok environment in their host countries.
The main issues covered here is on the movement of the people. This means that there is a difference in the labor reward mainly to the skilled labor. This implies that the resources I the world have been heavily miss-allocated. The global production is increased as a result of migration. The big issue is the allocation of the profits derived from such migrations especially to the uplifting of upcoming world economies mainly in the developing counties. The migration may be due to lack of good institutions o poo geography in the developing countries, hence the need to use this as a mechanism to address the problems in their home country and make a return migration. This means that the newly acquired skills, finances, new outlooks, assist in changing the institutions in their home nations. This though may not heavily help eliminate the initial causes of migration but helps in boosting the economy of their home country. The opportunities are increased for the residents and hence helps reduce the number of people moving to other economies but assist in the development in their home countries.
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