Personal Space

Personal space expresses one’s personality and inner self where the inner interactive thinking occurs and later human factors are formed. Deep inside, it contains the values that a person believes in, personal values which guide thinking, judgment, feelings and behaviors (Nagar, 2006). On the other hand, culture refers to people’s way of living and interpretation of their world. Culture encompasses thoughts, values, attitudes, traditions, beliefs, ethics and customs. All these act to drive personal behaviors and determine whatever a person can consider normal (Coon, 2010).

Individual versus community orientation plays a key role in human project management. In some cultures such as in the U.S, individualism and independence overrules community orientation. The strengths of businesses in such culture are driven by individuals’ initiatives and motives. Individualism prevails even in groups at the workplace. In other cultures, community and interdependence feature more. This implies that the community interest is highly valued rather than that of an individual (Andersen & Taylor, 2008).

Respect for authority is evident in many cultures: respect for the elderly, status and the authorities like government as a whole. Challenging the opinion of the respected people is feared by some people.


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Non-verbal communications are commonly expressed through body language and gestures. Different cultures have different forms of non-verbal communications that are considered acceptable. One needs to understand them in order to interact with members of such cultures (Sommer, 2007).

The westerners are more time-conscious compared to the other races like Africans, Asians and others. They are first in doing everything. Most countries in the world enjoy leisurely speed.

Teams need to value cultural diversity of their members by ensuring everyone is involved in the teams’ activities by all the possible means.

Generations like those of traditionalists have made inventions like radios, computers and televisions, while baby boomers did expand the stock market section. The Xers brought more confidence in work as they fought for developments and expansions of boomers’ inventions. The Millenials are the new generation entering workforce that is eager to stimulate change through technological development (Bizony, 2009).

In conclusion, several lessons have been learnt from Wong text, and indeed personal space is of great value in human project management. It influences human interactions at all levels. 

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