Overpopulation of the Earth is one of the most important global problems of the modern world community. Population growth is at an incredible rate, which leads to other serious consequences (natural disasters, local wars, lack of resources). Economic and political development of all humanity is impossible without a uniform distribution of the population in all countries of the world. However, this problem requires radical action to address it. It is impractical to solve the problem of terrorism and global warming if the problem of overpopulation is not solved. This paper describes the problem of overpopulation and provides some of the ways to solve it.
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The process of reproduction of the population and a change of generations is a continuous process for Earth. In 2010, the Earth had 6.82 billion people. Historically, this figure grew unevenly due to wars and epidemics that have caused the deaths of millions of people. Periods of rapid growth followed by periods of residents a significant reduction in their number. For example, in 1900, the planet had slightly more than 1.6 billion people. By 1960, this figure has doubled and reached 3 billion, and the next doubling took place after 39 years. Despite the fact that the pace of growth slowed slightly in subsequent years, the researchers argue that catastrophic overpopulation threatens our planet in the near future.
Currently, the Earths population is 7.45 billion people. UN experts estimate that the population is increasing by 78 million people each year, and will reach 9.7 billion by 2050. At the same time, population growth will continue mainly in the most densely populated and undeveloped regions. So, by 2050, half of the expected population growth will be in India, the USA, China, Nigeria, Indonesia, and Pakistan. By the way, today, China is the most populous country in the world, with 1.3 billion people. India ranked second with 1.25 billion, and the United States has approximately 290 million people. However, China successfully struggles with overpopulation, unlike India, Pakistan, Nigeria, and other countries that do not take serious measures to address the issue. Therefore, India will become the champion of population growth. After 50 years, the Indians will be almost two billion instead of the present number. Furthermore, the population of Pakistan and Nigeria would be increased more than two times.
The average over the world, every woman has three children. In European countries, this figure is much lower almost one child. However, the European countries suffer from a steady stream of migrants from Syria, Mexico, India, and Kazakhstan and so on. Exorbitant population growth and an increase in the load on the ecosystem dramatically affect the existence of all humanity. Emigration from the destruction of natural habitat has become a normal phenomenon in our time. Most economists and environmentalists believe that many ecosystems will be destroyed if the population of the Earth will be more than 11 billion people. According to another data, human population will reach 260 billion people in 200 years, and all the land suitable for life will be covered with a solid city with a population density of 5200 people per square kilometer. It is in urban areas where the population density is high and where a technological infrastructure is concentrated. Designated pasture and arable land will remain.
Another reason causing natural disasters is the influence (usually negative) of humanity on the environment. Extraction of subsurface oil, coal, gas in enormous quantities, creates a void, breaking a steady balance for thousands of years, leading to the accumulation of stress in the crust. As a result, there are induced seismicity, subsidence areas, flooding, failures, and manufactured physical fields. All this increases the frequency of earthquakes. The most commonly induced seismicity is manifested in the creation of large reservoirs and pumping of water into the deep horizons of the Earths crust.
China shows great results fighting with overpopulation: during 15 years of birth control (one child per family) 200 million people were born in a country that is less than would be born without this restriction. In countries where the majority of the population is illiterate, constantly hungry, deprived of normal medical care, as a rule, the birth rate is many times higher than where the people are fed, educated, and healthy (Wang, Yang, Zhang, & Chang, 2016). This is an immutable rule; a higher level of culture and consciousness helps to regulate family size.
Some researchers also propose projects of construction of huge spacious homes that are able to place millions of people. This will provide housing for millions in need, and at the same time to revive and preserve the primary landscape and flora and fauna. However, this is not a solution to the problem of population growth: it does not stop when the population will reach even 200 billion. In addition, humanity cannot be closed in a confined space. Anyway, eventually, people have to impose restrictions on fertility, as China did.
To summarize, humanity cannot live comfortably, safely and constructively, with such a huge population pressure, with the shortage of resources and habitable areas. Since the beginning of civilization, people is at war with each other for resources and territory. At the same time, scientific and technological progress does not solve the problems associated with the lack of resources, because humanity meets its increasing number of technical and scientific progress.
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